Appendix III. How to Backup

1) Basic

(1) Cloud storage

  • Tsinghua cloud based on seafile 清华云,在校内使用速度快。
  • Nutstore cloud 商业云存储,每个月有免费的备份流量。自己申请账号使用。

(2) Backup tool that comes with the system

(3) Backup your code with GitHub

  • Create and edit your repositories (repos.) at GitHub on line
  • Use GitHub Desktop App to sync your local projects (code) with Github repos.

2) Advanced

(1) Backup your code with GitHub in Terminal

[user]
name = Shared
  • Clone/Download an existed repository on github
git clone [email protected]:lulab/RNAfinder_Server.git
git clone https://github.com/xug15/test.git
  • Create a new repository
echo "# test" >> README.md
git init
git add README.md
git commit -m "first commit"
git remote add origin https://github.com/xug15/test.git
git push -u origin master
  • Sync local files with github repo
Pull (update):
git pull origin master
git log -n 2 # look at the last two log entries.
Add:
git add exmaples/
git commit -m ‘20190705v1’
git push origin
Change:
git commit -m ‘20190705v1’
git push origin
Remove:
git rm *.file
git commit -m ‘20190705v1’
git push origin
Tips: the bash script to sync a github repo:
time=`date`
echo $time
git add -u .
git add *
git commit -m '$time'
git push origin master

(2) Backup data using rsync and crontab

(2.1) Setup ssh key (optional)

  • (a) Generate SSH key
ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 2048
  • (b) Copy your keys to the target server
ssh-copy-id [email protected]_ip #if port add: -p 2200
上述操作后,通过ssh到remote server时就可以无需输入密码了,因此下面的步骤也可以在无人值守的时候自动运行。
但如果下面的步骤中你无需登录remote server, 就无需setup ssh key。

(2.2) Prepare a backup script with rsync

  • (a) First you need to prepare some backup dirs
mkdir /home/john/backup_local # prepare a backup dir for some local files
mkdir /home/john/backup_remote # prepare a backup dir for some remote files
  • (b) Then, write a back up script, for example : ~/backup.sh
#!/bin/bash
#0. Define the parameters of rsync
RSYNC="rsync --stats --compress --recursive --times --perms --links --delete --max-size=100M --exclude-from=/home/john/excluded_file_list.txt"
#A. Local backup
echo "1. Backup of /home/john/data start at:"
date
$RSYNC /home/john/data/ /home/john/backup_local/
echo "Backup end at:"
date
#B. Remote backup
echo "2. Backup 166.178.56.20:/home/lulab/john/data/ start at:"
date
$RSYNC [email protected]:/home/lulab/john/data/ /home/john/backup_remote/
echo "Backup end at:"
date
  • (c) Last, make your backup.sh excutable
chmod +x ~/backup.sh
Parameters of rsync (use man rsync to see more details):
Parameter
Mean
-a:
以递归方式传输文件
--delete:
删除那些接收端还有而发送端已经不存在的文件
-q:
精简输出模式
-z:
在传输文件时进行压缩处理
-H:
保持硬链接文件
-t:
对比两边文件的时间戳和文件大小.如果一致,则就认为两边文件一样,对此文件就不再采取更新动作了
-I:
挨个文件去发起数据同步
--port=PORT:
端口号

(2.3) Schedule the back tasks with crontab

crontab是Linux中用来定期执行程序的命令, 你可以使用 在线crontab生成器,也可以按如下方式自己编辑:
  • 打开crontab编辑器:
crontab -e
  • 加入以下行:
# minute hour day_in_month month day_in_week command
15 3 * * * /home/john/backup.sh > /home/john/backup.log
Linux将通过crontab定时运行上述命令, 具体定义如下:
Column
Mean
Column 1:
Minutes 0 to 59
Column 2:
Hours 0 to 23 (0 means midnight)
Column 3:
Day 1 to 31
Column 4:
Months 1~12
Column 5:
Week 0 to 7 (0 and 7 for Sunday)
Column 6:
Command to run

(3) More Reading for advanced users

  • 鸟哥的Linux私房菜-基础学习篇》 (25章推荐章节)
    Linux 推荐章节:
    • 第25章 LINUX备份策略: 25.2.2完整备份的差异备份; 25.3鸟哥的备份策略; 25.4灾难恢复的考虑; 25.5重点回顾